Start Date Release Date Release Versions PR link Tracking Link Stage Teams
10/31/2018 6/28/2019
  • ember-data: v3.11.0
  • Data

Ember Data Packages


This documents presents the proposed public import path changes for ember-data, and moving ember-data into the @ember-data namespace.


Reduce Confusion & Bike Shedding

Users of ember-data have often noted their confusion by the existence of both direct and "god object" (DS.) style imports for modules from ember-data. The documentation currently uses primarily the DS. style, and users have expressed interest and confusion over why the documentation has not been updated to reflect direct imports.

Improve The TypeScript Experience

Presence of multiple import locations confuses Typescript's autocomplete, symbol resolution, and type hinting.

Simplify The Mental Model

Users of ember-data complain about the large API surface area; however, a large portion of this surface area is non-essential user-land APIs that the provided adapter and serializer implementations expose. This move to packages helps us simplify the mental model in three ways.

First: it gives us a natural way of dividing the documentation and learning story such that key concepts and APIs are more discoverable.

Second: it allows us specifically to isolate the API surface area explosion of the provided adapter and serializer implementations and make it clear that these are non-essential, replaceable APIs. E.G. it will help us to communicate that these adapters and serializers are an implementation, not the required implementation.

Third: it clarifies the roles of several concepts within ember-data that are often misused today. Specifically: the embedded-records-mixin should only be used with the RESTAdapter, and transforms are only a serialization/deserialization concern and not a way of defining custom attrs or types. Furthermore, transforms are only applicable to the serializer implementations that ember-data provides, and not to custom (and sometimes not to subclassed) serializers.

Improve the Contributor Experience

Contributors to ember-data are faced with a large, complex project with poor code and test organization. This makes it unduly difficult to discover what tests exist, where to add tests, where associated code lives, and even what parts of the code base relate to the feature or bug that they are looking to address.

This move to packages will help us restructure the project and associated tests in a manner that is more discoverable.

Provide a Clear Subdivision of Packages

Today, ember-data is a large single package (~35KB gzipped in production). ember-data is often one of the largest dependencies emberjs users have in their applications. However, not all users utilize all parts of ember-data, and some users use very little. Providing these packages helps to clearly show the cost of various features, and better allows us to enable end users to eliminate unneeded packages.

Users that implement their own adapter or serializers today must still carry the significant weight of the adapter and serializer implementations that ember-data ships regardless. This is a weight we should enable these users to eliminate.

With the landing of RecordData and the merging of the modelFactoryFor RFC, it is likely that many applications will soon require far less of ember-data than they do today. ember-m3 is an example of a project that utilizes these APIs in a way that requires significantly less of the ember-data experience.

Provide Infrastructure for Additional Changes

ember-data is entering a period of extended evolution, of which RecordData and modelFactoryFor are only the early pieces. For example, current thinking includes the possibility of ember-data evolving to provide an ember-m3-like experience for json-api as the default out-of-the-box experience, and a rethinking of how we manage the request/response lifecycle when fulfilling a request for data.

These experiences would live alongside the existing experience for a time prior to any deprecations of the current layer, and it is possible that sometimes the current experience would never be deprecated. Subdividing ember-data into these packages will enable us to provide a more seamless transition between these experiences without hoisting any package size costs onto users that do not use either the current or the new experience.

Detailed design

This RFC proposes import paths following the guidelines established in Ember Modules RFC #176, with two addendums to account for scenarios that weren't faced by ember:

  • Error sub-classes are named exports
  • Mixins are named exports

This is done to allow for continued grouping by common usage and mental model, where otherwise users would be faced with multiple imports from length file paths.

The following modules would continue to live in a monorepo that (until further RFC) would continue to live at

Before After
import DS from 'ember-data'; Direct Import New Location


DS.Model import Model from 'ember-data/model'; import Model from '@ember-data/model';
DS.attr import attr from 'ember-data/attr'; import { attr } from '@ember-data/model';
DS.belongsTo import { belongsTo } from 'ember-data/relationships'; import { belongsTo } from '@ember-data/model';
DS.hasMany import { hasMany } from 'ember-data/relationships'; import { hasMany } from '@ember-data/model';


DS.Adapter import Adapter from 'ember-data/adapter'; import Adapter from '@ember-data/adapter';
DS.RESTAdapter import RESTAdapter from 'ember-data/adapters/rest'; import RESTAdapter from '@ember-data/adapter/rest';
DS.JSONAPIAdapter import JSONAPIAdapter from 'ember-data/adapters/json-api'; import JSONAPIAdapter from '@ember-data/adapter/json-api';
DS.BuildURLMixin none import { BuildURLMixin } from '@ember-data/adapter';
DS.AdapterError import { AdapterError } from 'ember-data/adapters/errors'; import AdapterError from '@ember-data/adapter/error';
DS.InvalidError import { InvalidError } from 'ember-data/adapters/errors'; import { InvalidError } from '@ember-data/adapter/error';
DS.TimeoutError import { TimeoutError } from 'ember-data/adapters/errors'; import { TimeoutError } from '@ember-data/adapter/error';
DS.AbortError import { AbortError } from 'ember-data/adapters/errors'; import { AbortError } from '@ember-data/adapter/error';
DS.UnauthorizedError import { UnauthorizedError } from 'ember-data/adapters/errors'; import { UnauthorizedError } from '@ember-data/adapter/error';
DS.ForbiddenError import { ForbiddenError } from 'ember-data/adapters/errors'; import { ForbiddenError } from '@ember-data/adapter/error';
DS.NotFoundError import { NotFoundError } from 'ember-data/adapters/errors'; import { NotFoundError } from '@ember-data/adapter/error';
DS.ConflictError import { ConflictError } from 'ember-data/adapters/errors'; import { ConflictError } from '@ember-data/adapter/error';
DS.ServerError import { ServerError } from 'ember-data/adapters/errors'; import { ServerError } from '@ember-data/adapter/error';
DS.errorsHashToArray none import { errorsHashToArray } from '@ember-data/adapter/error';

this public method should also be a candidate for deprecation
DS.errorsArrayToHash none import { errorsArrayToHash } from '@ember-data/adapter/error';

this public method should also be a candidate for deprecation


DS.Serializer import Serializer from 'ember-data/serializer'; import Serializer from '@ember-data/serializer';
DS.JSONSerializer import JSONSerializer from 'ember-data/serializers/json'; import JSONSerializer from '@ember-data/serializer/json';
DS.RESTSerializer import RESTSerializer from 'ember-data/serializers/rest'; import RESTSerializer from '@ember-data/serializer/rest';
DS.JSONAPISerializer import JSONAPISerializer from 'ember-data/serializers/json-api'; import JSONAPISerializer from '@ember-data/serializer/json-api';
DS.EmbeddedRecordsMixin import EmbeddedRecordsMixin from 'ember-data/serializers/embedded-records-mixin'; import { EmbeddedRecordsMixin } from '@ember-data/serializer/rest';
DS.Transform import Transform from 'ember-data/transform'; import Transform from '@ember-data/serializer/transform';


DS.Store import Store from 'ember-data/store'; import Store from '@ember-data/store';
DS.Snapshot none none
DS.PromiseArray none none
DS.PromiseObject none none
DS.RecordArray none none
DS.AdapterPopulatedRecordArray none none
DS.RecordarrayManager none none
DS.normalizeModelName none import { normalizeModelName } from '@ember-data/store';

this public method should be a candidate for deprecation


none import { RecordData } from 'ember-data/-private'; import RecordData from '@ember-data/record-data';


DS.Relationship none none


DS.DebugAdapter none none



1) InternalModel and RootState are tightly coupled to the store and to our provided Model implementation. Over time we need to uncouple this, but given their coupling to Model and our desire to enable them to be eliminated from projects not using Model, these concepts belong in @ember-data/model, although they will not be given direct import paths.

2) The following belong in @ember-data/model and not in @ember-data/relationship-layer with relationships. While this presents a mild risk of confusion due to the presence of the relationship-layer package, the argument for their presence here is they are a ui-layer concern being coupled to the current Model presentation layer and not related to overall state management of relationships which could itself be used with alternative implementations.

  • belongsTo

  • hasMany

    3) The following have the same considerations as #2 but they will not be given direct import paths.

  • PromiseManyArray

  • ManyArray


1) We should move automatic registration of transforms into a more traditional app/ directory re-export for the package so that when the package is dropped they cleanly drop as well.


This package seems thin but it's likely to hold quite a bit. Additional private things that would be moved here:

  • everything in -private/system/relationships/state
  • BelongsToReference and HasManyReference
  • relationship logic from store / internal-model that need to be isolated and extracted


Moving DebugAdapter here would allow dropping it if not desired. Additionally we should likely RFC dropping it for production builds where it adds persistent unnecessary overhead for a tool meant for devs. This exists to support the ember inspector.

Documented Public APIs without public import paths

There are a few public classes that are not exposed at all via export today. Those classes will not be given public export paths, but the package containing their documentation and implementation is shown here:

  • @ember-data/store
    • Reference
    • RecordReference
    • StoreWrapper
  • @ember-data/relationship-layer
    • BelongsToReference
    • HasManyReference
  • @ember-data/model
    • PromiseBelongsTo
    • PromiseRecord


Blueprints, guides, docs, and twiddle would be updated to use the new @ember-data/ package imports.

A codemod would be provided to convert from the existing import locations to the new ones, as well as lint rules for encouraging their use.

The package ember-data would continue to exist, much like ember-source. Initially, this package would provide all of the subpackages as dependencies as well as the respective re-exports for supporting the existing import paths. After a time, the existing paths would be deprecated.

Users who have resolved the deprecations may choose to convert to consuming only the packages they still require directly, by dropping ember-data from their package.json and adding in the individual @ember-data/ packages as necessary.

Ultimately, the default ember-data story in ember-cli would change to install select packages from @ember-data directly.

How we teach this

This RFC should be seen as a continuation of the javascript-modules RFC that defined explicit import paths for emberjs.

Codemods and lint rules would be provided to convert existing imports to the new syntax. Existing import locations would continue to exist for a time but would at some point in the future be made to print build-time deprecations.

End users would need to run the codemod at some point, but no other changes will be required.

Ember documentation and guides would be updated to reflect these new import paths as well as to utilize the new package divisions to improve the teaching story.


  • A Tiny amount of churn
  • Sub-packages will require sprinkling significant numbers of excess package.json files throughout our repo.
  • Our import paths may not align with the expected mental model for addon import paths going forward (no /src/ in path)


1) Divide into packages without exposing the new division publicly

  • argument for: Don't expose churn to end users without a clear win, we aren't 100% sure what belongs in a vague "future ember-data", so wait until we are sure.
  • rebuttal: The churn is minimal and mostly automated (codemod). There are clear wins here for many users. We should not hold up progress now on an uncertain future. Dividing into packages now gives us more options for how to manage future evolution. Regardless of when we become certain of what belongs in "future ember-data", these packages would need to exist alongside at least for a time.

2) Don't divide into packages until nebulous future RFCs have landed

  • argument for: This argument is an extension of alternative 1 in which we wait for specific concepts to mature and materialize that we have discussed internally, including a significant rework of how we manage the request/response lifecycle. These new feature RFCs would come with corresponding deprecation RFCs for parts of the system they either fully replace or make vestigial.
  • rebuttal: The argument here is a variation of the argument in alternative 1 and the rebuttal merely extends that rebuttal as well. These future deprecations would necessarily be long-tail, if we deprecate at all. There is the option to have both old and new experiences live side-by-side. Additionally, if we deprecate and then land @ember-data/packages there is both an equal amount of churn and fewer options for how to manage those deprecations.

3) Use the @ember namespace.

  • argument for: ember-data is an official package and we wish to position it centrally within the ember ecosystem. This argument has been presented by other core teams in response to previous attempts to move forward with a packages RFC for ember-data.

  • rebuttal: ember-cli and glimmer are also official packages, but with their own namespaces. Additionally re-using the @ember namespace would only further confusion that many folks already have regarding:

    • where ember ends and ember-data begins.
    • whether ember-data is required or optional
    • whether other data layers are seen as "bad practices" (they are not)
    • what packages are provided by ember-data vs ember ember-data's status as a team, in the guides and in release blog posts on, as well as presence in the default blueprint provided by ember-cli make clear it's status as an official offering. Using the @ember namespace is not required for this.

    This argument also necessarily foments an untrue presupposition: that ember-data is the right choice for every app. While we strive to make this the case, it would be very difficult to claim this today, and may never be true, as every app presents unique concerns and needs.

    Finally, using the @ember namespace would leave us in the unfortunate position of either always scoping all of our packages to @ember/data/ or of fighting with emberjs for package names.

4) This RFC but with Adapters and Serializers broken out into the packages @ember-data/json @ember-data/rest @ember-data/json-api.

  • argument for: grouping the adapter / serializer "by API spec" feels more natural and would allow for users to drop only the versions of adapters / serializer they don't require.

  • rebuttal: Even without considering future changes to ember-data's API surface, there are several issues with this approach.

    1) The implementations inherit each other:

    • JSONAPISerializer extends RESTSerializer extends JSONSerializer extends Serializer
    • JSONAPIAdapter extends RESTAdapter extends Adapter 2) The adapter / serializer pairings aren't coupled
    • It is fairly common to use the JSONAPIAdapter with the RESTSerializer or with a custom serializer that extends the RESTSerializer and vice-verse.
    • Even when using a consistent spec (json-api or rest) it is common to need a fully custom serializer. The division of needs is at least equally between adapter/serializer as it is between specs.

    3) Transforms are an implementation detail for all the provided serializers

    • But they are not required and likely not even used by custom serializers.

    4) Packages for automatically registered fallbacks would fit poorly.

    • Serializers: "-default" "-rest" "-json-api"
    • Adapters: "-rest" "-json-api" 5) Today, we use multiple serializers for a single type based on entry-point
    • Model.serialize (per-type) / Model.toJSON ("-json") / Adapter.serialize (per-adapter)

    That said, this organization is also one of the only-nods to future RFCs this RFC concedes. The existing provided implementations all follow roughly the same interface for their implementations, and that interface is something we strongly wish to change. For this reason, it seems advantageous to keep the existing implementations together such that the delineation between a new experience and this experience can be kept clear.