Start Date Release Date Release Versions PR link Tracking Link Stage Teams
  • ember-data: v4.12.0
  • Data

EmberData | Request Service


Proposes a simple abstraction over fetch to enable easy management of request/response flows. Provides associated utilities to assist in migrating to this new abstraction. Adds new APIs to the Store to make use of this abstraction.


  • Serializer lacks the context necessary to serialize/normalize data on a per-request basis
  • This is especially true when performing "actions", RPC style requests, "partial" save requests, and "transactional" saves
  • Often users end up needing to pre-normalize in the adapter in order to supply information contained in either headers or to convert into JSON from other forms (such as jsonb, json5 protocol buffers or similar)
  • Adapter is inflexible and difficult to grow as an interface for managing data fulfillment from a source.
  • Applications have need of a low-level primitive solution for managed fetch to ensure proper headers, authentication, error handling, SSR support, test-waiter support, and request de-duping/caching.
  • The Adapter pattern stands in the way of pagination-by-default and query caching
  • The Adapter pattern does not fit with many common data-fetching paradigms today
  • The Adapter pattern does not fit with transactional saves

Detailed design


A RequestManager provides a request/response flow in which configured handlers are successively given the opportunity to handle, modify, or pass-along a request.

interface RequestManager {
  request<T>(req: RequestInfo): Future<T>;

For example:

import RequestManager from '@ember-data/request';
import Fetch from '@ember/data/request/fetch';
import Auth from 'ember-simple-auth/ember-data-handler';
import Config from './config';

const { apiUrl } = Config;

// ... create manager
const manager = new RequestManager();
manager.use([Auth, Fetch]);

// ... execute a request
const response = await manager.request({
  url: `${apiUrl}/users`


The return value of manager.request is a Future, which allows access to limited information about the request while it is still pending and fulfills with the final state when the request completes.

A Future is cancellable via abort.

Handlers may optionally expose a ReadableStream to the Future for streaming data; however, when doing so the future should not resolve until the response stream is fully read.

 * @class Future
 * @public
interface Future<T> extends Promise<StructuredDocument<T>> {
   * Cancel this request by firing the AbortController's signal.
   * @method abort
   * @public
   * @returns {void}
  abort(): void;

   * Get the response stream, if any, once made available.
   * @method getStream
   * @public
   * @returns {Promise<ReadableStream | null>}
  getStream(): Promise<ReadableStream | null>;

   *  Run a callback when this request completes. Use sparingly.
   * @method onFinalize
   * @param cb the callback to run
   * @public
   * @returns {void}
  onFinalize(cb: () => void): void;

The StructuredDocument interface is the same as is proposed in emberjs/rfcs#854 but is shown here in richer detail.

interface RequestInfo extends Request {
  disableTestWaiter?: boolean;
   * data that a handler should convert into
   * the query (GET) or body (POST)
  data?: Record<string, unknown>;
   * options specifically intended for handlers
   * to utilize to process the request
  options?: Record<string, unknown>;

   * Allows supplying a custom AbortController for
   * the request, if none is supplied one is generated
   * for the request. When calling `next` if none is
   * provided the primary controller for the request
   * is used.
   * controller will not be passed through onto the immutable
   * request on the context supplied to handlers.
  controller?: AbortController;

   * Once a request has been made it becomes immutable, this
   * includes Headers. To modify headers you may copy existing
   * headers using `new Headers([...headers.entries()])`.
   * Immutable headers instances have an additional method `clone`
   * to allow this to be done swiftly.
  headers?: Headers;

   * Typically you should not set this, though you may choose to curry
   * a received signal if calling next. signal will automatically be set
   * to the associated controller's signal if none is supplied.
  signal?: AbortSignal;

interface ResponseInfo {
  headers: Headers;
  ok: boolean;
  redirected: boolean;
  status: number;
  statusText: string;
  type: string;
  url: string;

interface StructuredDataDocument<T> {
  request: RequestInfo;
  response: Response | ResponseInfo | null;
  content: T;
interface StructuredErrorDocument extends Error {
  request: RequestInfo;
  response: Response | ResponseInfo | null;
  error: Error;
  content?: unknown;
type StructuredDocument<T> = StructuredDataDocument<T> | StructuredErrorDocument;

A Future resolves with a StructuredDataDocument or rejects with a StructuredErrorDocument.

Request Handlers

Requests are fulfilled by handlers. A handler receives the request context as well as a next function with which to pass along a request to the next handler if it so chooses.

If a handler calls next, it receives a Future which fuulfills to a StructuredDocument that it can then compose how it sees fit with its own response.

type NextFn = <P>(req: RequestInfo) => Future<P>;

interface Handler {
  request<T = unknown>(context: RequestContext, next: NextFn<T>): Promise<T> | Future<T>;

RequestContext contains information about the request as well as a few methods for building up the StructuredDocument and Future that will be part of the response.

interface RequestContext<T> {
  readonly request: RequestInfo;

  setStream(stream: ReadableStream | Promise<ReadableStream | null>): void;
  setResponse(response: ResponseInfo | Response | null): void;

A basic fetch handler with support for streaming content updates while the download is still underway might look like the following, where we use response.clone() to tee the ReadableStream into two streams.

A more efficient handler might read from the response stream, building up the response data before passing along the chunk downstream.

const FetchHandler = {
  async request(context) {
    const response = await fetch(context.request);

    return response.json();

Request handlers are registered by configuring the manager via use

manager.use([Handler1, Handler2])

Handlers will be invoked in the order they are registered ("fifo", first-in first-out), and may only be registered up until the first request is made. It is recommended but not required to register all handlers at one time in order to ensure explicitly visible handler ordering.

Stream Currying

RequestManager.request differs from fetch in one extremely crucial detail and we feel the need to deeply describe how and why.

For context, it helps to understand a few of the use-cases that RequestManager is intended to allow.

  • Historically EmberData could not be used to manage and return streaming content (such as video files). With this change, it can be. (The Identifiers RFC and Cache 2.1 RFCs also make this ability pervasive throughout all layers of EmberData)
  • It might be the case that a handler "tees" or "forks" a request, fulfilling it by either making multiple parallel fetch requests, or by calling next multiple times, or by fulfilling part of the request from one source (one API, in-memory, localStorage, IndexedDB etc.) and the rest from another source (a different API, a WebWorker, etc.)
  • Handlers may only be amending the request and passing it along, for instance an Auth handler may simply be ensuring the correct tokens or headers or cookies are attached.

await fetch(<req>) behaves differently than some realize. The fetch promise resolves not once the entirety of the request has been received, but rather at the moment headers are received. This allows for the body of the request to be processed as a stream by application code while chunks are still being received by the browser. When an app chooses to await response.json() what actually occurs is the browser reads the stream to completion and then returns the result. Additionally, this stream may only be read once.

In designing the RequestManager, we do not want to eliminate this ability to subscribe to and utilize the stream by either the application or the handler. We believe it crucial that the full power and flexibility of native APIs remains in developers hands, and do not want to create a restriction such that developers feel the need to create complicated workarounds for what would feel like an unnecessary restriction to gain access to built-in APIs.

However, because there is potentially a chain of handlers involved, and because there are potentially multiple streams involved, and because we require that await manager.request(<req>) resolves with fully realized content, we find ourselves in a design conundrum.

We have considered several variations on how to support streams: from a two-tiered promise structure similar to fetch (which quickly fails due to the chained nature of handlers), to enforcing that handlers synchronously call setStream either with a ReadableStream or a promise resolving to one.

Each variation has had drawbacks, some were critical and some simply had poor ergonomics. What we have arrived at is this:

Each handler may call setStream only once, but may do so at any time until the promise that the handler returns has resolved. The associated promise returned by calling future.getStream will resolve with the stream set by setStream if that method is called, or null if that method has not been called by the time that the handler's request method has resolved.

Handlers that do not create a stream of their own, but which call next, should defensively pipe the stream forward. While this is not required (see automatic currying below) it is better to do so in most cases as otherwise the stream may not become available to downstream handlers or the application until the upstream handler has fully read it.


Handlers that either call next multiple times or otherwise have reason to create multiple fetch requests should either choose to return no stream, meaningfully combine the streams, or select a single prioritized stream.

Of course, any handler may choose to read and handle the stream, and return either no stream or a different stream in the process.

Automatic Currying of Stream and Response

In order to simplify what we believe will be a common case for handlers which are merely decorating a request, if next is called only a single time and setResponse was never called by the handler the response set by the next handler in the chain will be applied to that handler's outcome. For instance, this makes the following pattern work return (await next(<req>)).data;.

Similarly, if next is called only a single time and neither setStream nor getStream was called, we automatically curry the stream from the future returned by next onto the future returned by the handler.

Finally, if the return value of a handler is a Future, we curry the entire thing. This makes the following possible and ensures even data and error is curried when doing so: return next(<req>).

In the case of the Future being returned from a handler not using async/await, Stream proxying is automatic and immediate and does not wait for the Future to resolve. If the handler uses async/await we have no ability to detect the Future until the handler has fully resolved. This means that if using async/await in your handler you should always pro-actively pipe the stream.

Using as a Service

Most applications will desire to have a single RequestManager instance, which can be achieved using module-state patterns for singletons, or for Ember applications by exporting the manager as an Ember service.


import RequestManager from '@ember-data/request';
import Fetch from '@ember/data/request/fetch';
import Auth from 'ember-simple-auth/ember-data-handler';

export default class extends RequestManager {
  constructor(createArgs) {
    this.use([Auth, Fetch]);

Using with the Store Service

Assuming a manager has been registered as the request service.


import Store from '@ember-data/store';
import { service } from '@ember/service';

export default class extends Store {
  @service('request') requestManager;

Alternatively to have a request service unique to the store:

import Store from '@ember-data/store';
import RequestManager from '@ember-data/request';
import Fetch from '@ember/data/request/fetch';

export default class extends Store {
  requestManager = new RequestManager();

  constructor(args) {

If using the package ember-data, the following configuration will automatically be done in order to preserve the legacy Adapter and Serializer behavior. Additional handlers or a service injection like the above would need to be done by the consuming application in order to make broader use of RequestManager.

import Store from '@ember-data/store';
import RequestManager from '@ember-data/request';
import { LegacyNetworkHandler } from '@ember-data/legacy-compat';

export default class extends Store {
  requestManager = new RequestManager();

  constructor(args) {

Using store.request(<req>)

The Store will add support for using the RequestManager via store.request(<req>).

class Store {
  request<T>(req: RequestInfo): Future<Reified<T>>;

There are three significant differences when calling store.request instead of requestManager.request.

1) the Store will be added to RequestInfo, and an additional cacheOptions property is available

interface StoreRequestInfo extends RequestInfo {
  cacheOptions?: { key?: string, reload?: boolean, backgroundReload?: boolean };
  store: Store;

2) The StructuredDocument is supplied to cache.put(doc) and the return value's data member is altered to either a single record or array of records resulting from instantiating the entities contained in the ResourceDocument returned by cache.put.

3) Both an operation (op) and and array of identifiers (records) may be provided as part of the request. While this information could also be included in options, we are giving it top-level precedence since handlers which perform data normalization will almost always require this information.

op may be any string that your handlers will recognize, though EmberData will provide an op matching one of the current Adapter request types when it is used to build the RequestInfo object.

records should be all records expected to be saved or fetched during the course of the request. Similarly, EmberData will populate this for you when using the request-builders or when the request is generated by the Store. This list will be used to update the status of the RequestStateService detailed in RFC #466

interface StoreRequestInfo extends RequestInfo {
  cacheOptions?: { key?: string, reload?: boolean, backgroundReload?: boolean };
  store: Store;

  op?: 'findRecord' | 'updateRecord' | 'query' | 'queryRecord' | 'findBelongsTo' | 'findHasMany' | 'createRecord' | 'deleteRecord';
  records?: StableRecordIdentifier[];

Background Reload Error Handling

When an error occurs during a background request we will update the cache with the StructuredErrorDocument but will swallowed the Error at that point.

This prevents consuming applications from being required to catch the error unless they wish to via a handler.


We do not intend to make any adjustments to the RequestStateService at this time, though this new paradigm enables us to easily manage a list of requests key'd by URL that could be useful for both application code and the Ember Inspector. If you are interested in adding such support, we would accept an RFC. With the greatly improved flow this RFC brings we expect that the overall design of the RequestStateService ought to be revisited.

Registering a CacheHandler

While any handler could make use of a cache, there is a handler granted specialized status which effectively functions as the very first handler in the handler chain (some additional special priviledges may be afforded around timing).

Only one such handler may exist, and an error will be thrown if more than one is attempted to be registered.

This method should only be used by a consuming application when the RequestManager instance is not the same instance used by the Store. If using @ember-data/store, @ember-data/store configures a CacheHandler which utilizes the Cache, the LifetimesService and cacheOptions to gate whether the request continues down the handler chain.

This same handler is what is responsible for updating the Cache via Cache.put once the request completes.

class RequestManager {
   * Register a handler to use for primary cache intercept.
   * Only one such handler may exist. If using the same
   * RequestManager as the Store instance the Store
   * registers itself as a Cache handler.
   * @method useCache
   * @public
   * @param {Handler[]} cacheHandler
   * @returns {void}
  useCache(cacheHandler: Handler): void;

Cache Lifetimes

In the past, cache lifetimes for single resources were controlled by either supplying the reload and backgroundReload options or by the Adapter's hooks for shouldReloadRecord, shouldReloadAll, shouldBackgroundReloadRecord and shouldBackgroundReloadAll.

This behavior will now be controlled by the combination of either supplying cacheOptions on the associated RequestInfo or by supplying a lifetimes service to the Store.

Explicit cacheOptions will always take precedence over the lifetimes service.

class Store {
  lifetimes: LifetimesService;

interface LifetimesService {
  isHardExpired(identifier: StableDocumentIdentifier): boolean;
  isSoftExpired(identifier: StableDocumentIdentifier): boolean;

Legacy Compatibility

In order to support the legacy adapter-driven lifetime behaviors of findRecord and similar store methods, these methods will still consult the adapter prior to consulting the lifetimes service. Requests that originate through store.request will not consult the Adapter methods.

Legacy Adapter/Serializer Support

In order to provide migration support for Adapter and Serializer, a LegacyNetworkHandler would be provided. This handler would take a request and convert it into the older form, calling the appropriate Adapter and Serializer methods. If no adapter exists for the type (including no application adapter), this handler would call next. In this manner an app can incrementally migrate request-handling to this new paradigm on a per-type basis as desired.

The legacy handler would only attempt to handle requests with an op and no url. Requests with a url would be forwarded on via next. In this way, individual requests can be migrated away from legacy by either directly invoking store.request with the correct args or by utilizing a request builder which assigns the url to the request object.

The package ember-data would automatically configure this handler. If not using ember-data this configuration would need to be done explicitly.

We intend to support this handler through at least the 5.x series, not deprecating it's usage before 6.0.

Similarly, the methods adapterFor and serializerFor will not be deprecated until at least 6.0; however, it should no longer be assumed that an application has an adapter or serializer at all.

Migrating Away From Legacy Finders

In order to support transitioning to this new paradigm, we would introduce new url-building and request-building utility functions in a new package (@ember-data/request-utils) that closely mirror what occurs by using the corresponding store and Adapter methods today.

Note: the lack of findAll in this list is intentional, we do not intend to implement this separately from query.

import { findRecord, queryRecord, query, updateRecord, createRecord, deleteRecord, saveRecord } from '@ember-data/request-utils';

const { data: user } = await store.request(findRecord('user', '1'));
const { data: user } = await store.request(queryRecord('user', { username: 'runspired' }));
const { data: users } = await store.request(query('user', {}));

await store.request(updateRecord(user));
await store.request(createRecord(user));
await store.request(deleteRecord(user));
await store.request(saveRecord(user));

Each of these request-builders returns an object satisfying the RequestInfo interface, which could also be manually constructed.

Additionally, a url-builder similar in behavior to the BuildURLMixin is provided. Notable differences include that is also serializes query params into the URL, and assumes the first argument is the "path for type".

The following config properties will be supply-able via the app's ember-cli-build

interface Config {
  '@embroider/macros': {
    setConfig: {
      '@ember-data/request-utils': {
          apiNamespace: string;
          apiHost: string;
import { buildUrl } from '@ember-data/request-utils';

// findRecord with include
const url = buildUrl('user', '1', { include: 'friends' });

// query page 3 of users
const url = buildUrl('users', null, { limit: 25, offset: 50 });

// query for a single user
const url = buildUrl('user', null, { username: 'runspired' });

// query the first page of comments for post 1
const url = buildUrl('post/1/comments/list', null, { limit: 10, offset: 0 });

Deprecating Legacy Finders

We would not immediately deprecate methods on the Store for requesting data until at least 6.0; however, applications should begin migrating all requests to this new paradigm and expect that the following methods will be deprecated at some point during the 6.x cycle

  • store.findRecord
  • store.findAll
  • store.query
  • store.queryRecord
  • store.saveRecord

Users that want to maintain these finder methods for longer would be able to add them back within their own application or library if desired; however, because these methods cannot easily utilize the full feature set of the cache, pagination, or request-manager we expect that their utility will diminish quickly.

Migrating Away from Serializers

We do not intend to provide a direct replacement of Serializers in any form. Instead, given the current power and flexibility of the Cache, we recommend aligning the Cache implementation with your API implementation.

If data normalization is still needed, we recommend writing a few helper functions that a handler can use to quickly transform the data as necessary. Due to having better context of the request, and due to the much smaller surface area to reason about, writing a function to transform data between formats should prove to be simple, quick and effective. We expect some addons may be created that offer helper functions for common transformations.

Since Serializers will not be officially deprecated until some point after 6.0, we feel that this is more than ample time for applications and addons to explore this space and either become comfortable with the realization that such data transformation is largely unecessary and wasteful or can be done via much simpler and surgical mechanisms.

Of course, users can always choose to continue using Serializers (and Adapters) forever. Their deprecation within EmberData will be scoped to (1) EmberData itself no longer being aware of the concept and (2) the adapter and serializer packages being deprecated.

If desired, other libraries could take on support of these packages, and make use of public APIs to restore these behaviors, utilizing the same public APIs EmberData will use to support them until deprecated. We suspect, however, the insane improvement in ergonomics and feature-set that this shift brings will –over the course of the few years prior to full removal– prove to users that the Adapter and Serializer world is no longer the best paradigm for their applications.

Typescript Support

Although EmberData has not more broadly shipped support for Typescript, experimental types will be shipped specifically for the RequestManager package. We can do this because the lack of entanglement with the other packages affords us the ability to more safely ship this subset of types while the others are still incomplete.

Types for other packages will eventually be provided but we will not rush them at this time.

How we teach this

  • EmberData should create new documentation and guides to cover using the RequestManager.

  • Existing documentation and guides should be re-written to either reference these new patterns or to be clear that they discuss a legacy pattern that is no longer recommended.

  • The learning story for EmberData should be reworked to one that incrementally grows from a simple abstraction over fetch, to fetch with a cache, to fetch with a cache and resource graph and presentational concerns.


Historically, Adapters hid away construction of requests from app-developers which kept application code focused only on working with data that was magically fetched and processed in the background.

When this worked, it worked very well, and many users have loved this magic deeply. However, this abstraction came at the great cost of making EmberData difficult to fit into many common scenarios, difficult to reason about and debug when data-fetching failed, and difficult to extend when even very trivial changes to request construction were required.

We do not feel the occassional magic of it all working outweighs the drawbacks of keeping the system as is, and so we have chosen a slightly more verbose approach that grants developers flexibity, power, and ease-of-use.


We considered building this over the existing Adapter interface, deprecating Serializers and instead encouraging data-transformation to be done within the Adapter. In fact, this pattern is fully possible today, we could just better document it and do nothing more. However, this approach does not solve the need for more general request management, nor does it interact well with common development paradigms such as GraphQL query building, nor does it allow us to introduce pagination-by-default, and finally it does very little to advance the goal of being a document centric cache.